1.The Vision in dogs

2. The hearing of the dog

3. The sense of smell in dog

1. Man's relationship with animals

2. Dog and Human societe

3. The dog shows in Europe

1. The Odyssey of the Word "Molossus"

2. The Evolution of brachycephalic molossoid dogs

1. The Origin of the Dog

 

2.The dog's evolution

 

3.The Origin of the Dog Revisited
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THE ORIGIN OF THE DOG
The scene is one of a kind. One of the two wolves is trapped in a rope loop. The other shows its teeth and the man who is approaching shoots and snaps the rope. The wolf is set free and goes away along with its partner. A good ending and there comes the logo of a famous Scottish whisky. The advertisement sends the message. The wolves, the snowy landscape,  the touch with nature. It’s a complete emotion. Everything is fine except for a tiny detail.
The animals in the commercial spot are not wolves, but dogs! Yes, the domestic animal, the dog. Someone might say "it’s ok, isn’t it the wolf the same as the dog? The dog comes from the wolf, not to mention the fact that there are the wolfhounds. What is more, a specialist told me that nowadays we certainly have dogs from cross-breeding of a dog with a wolf and of a dog with a jackal”.
Really, how many millions of people don’t have this view? But are things like that?
Let’s travel in the past through the studies of scientists, which are based on paleolithical fossils-zoolites which can be found in Albert Heim Foundation .
Everything started 38 million years ago, in a time which the scientists name Eocene era. Then for the first time we have the appearance of about 50 animals which looked like dogs. Even thought they varied in size, their common look had canine features, strong legs for running, which also had very strong and hooked claws. The myacids. They are dominant carnivorous animals which hunt in the trees, underground, but mainly on the ground. And although there is a common competitor creodont, they prevail.
They prevail and they evolve in 4236 kinds which exist even today, the canidae family and we classify them in 8 groups, Beavers, Herpestidae, Weasels, Raccoons, Bears, Hyenas, Dogs and Cats (feline).
But why did the miacids prevail over the creodont?
The answer is given from the jaws of the two kinds that we already have in our hands. One can easily see that in contrast with the molars of the creodont,    which are perfect, as scissor-action teeth, for the cutting of the flesh, which indicates only carnivorous, the molars of miacids are teeth to grind seeds, weeds, bones while at the same time they still have, in the middle of their chin, the same sharp teeth (molars) for meat, that is Omnivorous. This fact    enabled them  to survive, evolving of course in times, when the climatological variations changed literally the  planet, that is  before 20 million years ago (Oligocene era) and 8 million years ago (Pliocene era).
The Protictitheriun, the scavenger of 200 kgs evolves into the ancestor of the striped hyena, which is fed on termites and also the spotted hyena , which even though is fed with corpses and it breaks bones, it uses the canine technique to hunt. However, elements of the same construction of teeth (molars) along with the same behavior and feeding on corpses can be found in America’s coyote, in the Eurasia’s jackal, as well as in the wild dog (lycaon pictus)of Africa, which scientists named doghyena.
The Creodonts and myacids co-existed for about 20 million years before Creodonts disappeared. Their molars and premolars of the myacid ware its mark of superiority, because this animal could not only chew meat but also grind  seeds and bones.
The absolute dependence of Creodonts, as far as its food concerned on the  large herbivores of the time, contributed to its disappearance, when they disappeared.
The dog is a mammal that has been behind at least 38 million years of evolution. A lot more of human evolution. The last 200 years that we study the dog are very few to make us understand what exactly  this fabulous  animal represents. The teeth of spotted hyena are perfectly adjusted so that it feeds on corpses and breaks bones. However it retains its canine teeth, which is a characteristic of canidae origin.
A caninae carnivore who lives in the forests of the semitropical Eurasia, cinodictis, evolves million years ago, among others, to amphicyon,  the  ancestors of beardog, the dominant caninae hunter of the region for 10 million years, which evolves into the ancestor of the bear (an omnivorous animal but with a canine behavior, especially as far as the deer hunting is concerned) and secondly into the short-face dogs.
The beardogs had a lot in common with the bears and the dogs. They were big like bears, but fast like dogs. They are the first caninae specie which live in communities, that is in packs.
Several fossils, teeth and jaws of this animal, have a lot in common with respective molossoid or dogen type dogs. What connects the dog with the bear is the fact that they both have virtually the same type of teeth. Canines, premolars and relatively widened molars. Cinodictis. The common ancestor to the bear and beardog from which they inherited the large size and caninae  behavior  in hunting. The ancestor of today's the bear which has lost the pack’s  behavior, but retains the hunting canidae’s  behavior. The omnivore's  behavior  of the ancestor of  today’s bear and  the bear itself is evident by its teeth. Beardog, the dominant hunter for about 10 million years. Other caninae carnivores of that period adapted themselves to hunting animals which live underground or they hide in the bushes. Some of the characteristics of the construction of those animals fit today’s raccoons, badgers and also with some small-sized breeds of dogs, mainly of Asian origin. Finally, the most numerous and medium-sized borophagus-Tomarctus, from the caninae-carnivores of the time evolves in canids. This animal is characterized mainly by the participation of all the members of its pack in hunting, as well as by strong resistance on the run and also it is omnivorous. In a layer of 2 million years old, there are fossils of a creature which ended later to become the man. That creature and modern man have huge differences e.g. their skull. On the contrary, the caninaes  are a  surprise. They have slightly changed since then. The canid, 8 million years ago, evolves into canis familiaris intermedious which is considered to be the ancestor of today’s wolflike dogs and into canis lupus which is considered to be the ancestor of today’s wolf.
The resemblance between the teeth of the beardog .and the teeth of a   molossoid of today is really outstanding.
The Tomarctus is the ancestor of the Africa’s wild dog, of the jackal of the wolf and of the coyotte.
The Tomarctus teeth reveal their relation to today’s wolf like dogs.
In the late 1970’s some scientific opinions came up, which connected the evolution of the dog with the evolution of the feline (cats). This concept is mainly due to the knowledge resulting from the domestication of cheetah-gatopardos-canicat and the observation that some breeds of dogs, especially molossoid, have the ability to reveal their claws and finally from the study of their teeth, that resemble those of a cat. The cheetah itself is certainly a feline, with a pathology similar to the dog and its claws are semiretractable, like the molossoid dogs. The mistake made in this case is the generalization of the, in fact, accurate observations and conclusions in all breeds of dogs. It is a repetition of the same methodology followed in 1850 when the first fossils of the beardog were discovered. Actually the cheetah- canicat is the link to the past, since it is the evolution of the primitive canidae cat, as feline belong to the large family of canidae. Besides, today with the help of molecular biology the number and type of amino acids with sufficient reliability determine the degree of relation of the kinds (DNA).
Therefore the common belief that the dog originates from the wolf or that we have a tamed wolf in our home, is not correct. Nevertheless this oversimplified   belief was a source of inspiration for many myths but also of literature, if we recall the book Call of the wild. Perhaps everything started around the 19th century, when by simplifying Darwin's evolution theory some people believed that man originated from ape, while the correct theory is that the man, chimpanzee, gorillas and orangutan have a common ancestor.
Just then some people attempted to crossbreed wolfs with dogs. Out of all the efforts that were made and it was rumored that they were successful, only three are scientifically accepted. One in Montana USA, one in Quebec, Canada, and finally one in Krakow Poland. In all three cases the death-rate of the puppies was great. In addition, all the animals that were born, were hybrids, incapable of giving descendants. Similar scientific efforts after 1945 had the same results. It was proved that breeds of dogs and the wolf or jackal or coyote  were animals that may share common genetic origin but, at least for 8 million years, these animals have different and completely individual paths of evolution. How else can be explained the fact that there is a huge variety of breeds, types and characteristics of the dog (Chihuahua, Saint Bernard, Basset, Borzoi etc). On the other hand, there are not any respective differentiations of the wolf, despite the large geographical spread. Precisely this variety forms of dogs is the big difference which resulted their travel in time, which was an unorthodox attempt to catch up with a world that is constantly changing.
This article was written in 1996 and first published in the magazine BLEMMA, 1998.
A more detailed description of the origin of the dog you will be able to find the address : www.kritikosichnilatis.gr
The canidaes and the caninaes have different ways of walking. The bear is a Plantigrade, the wolf and the dog Disitigrade.
Among them there are intermediaries (Semiplantigrade animals).